We have provided some answers to frequently asked questions about LARI, our role, and our services.  Reach out to us if you have other questions or need clarification.

Is LARI a judicial organization or court?

LARI is not part of the Luxembourg civil, criminal, or administrative judicial system. Also, we cannot give legal advice.  LARI is a non-profit organization which performs independent inquiry and investigation in cases of suspected research misconduct according to the principles of Section 3 of the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity .  The CRI Opinion Reports incorporate principles of meaningful corrective action and are not Orders.

Is LARI a Research Ethics Committee?

No, LARI is not a Research Ethics Committee.  LARI is interested in research ethics, however, because research ethics are foundational to research integrity.  LARI provides training sessions/workshops on various topics in research ethics, good research practice, and bioethics, as this content helps create a culture of robust research and is a proactive approach to ethical decision-making in research.  LARI also provides ethics consultation in matters pertaining to research ethics, bioethics, and research integrity.  Local and national research ethics committees give approvals to conduct research — please view those links on our Resources page and Research Ethics FAQ page.

What types of research misconduct cases does LARI investigate?

The remit of LARI is scientific misconduct (i.e., fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, failure to meet clear ethical and/or legal requirements) as well as violations of the rules of good scientific practice of the European Code of Conduct of Research Integrity. The alleged misconduct must have occurred within the past 10 years. Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion.

Can you give some examples of unacceptable research practices that are within investigative scope for LARI?

The examples below are from the European Code of Conduct of Research Integrity:

  • Making up results and recording them as if they were real (fabrication).
  • Manipulating research materials, equipment or processes or changing, omitting or suppressing data or results without justification (falsification).
  • Using other people’s work and ideas without giving proper credit to the original source, thus violating the rights of the original author(s) to their intellectual outputs (plagiarism).
  • Manipulating authorship or denigrating the role of other researchers in publications.
  • Re-publishing substantive parts of one’s own earlier publications, including translations, without duly acknowledging or citing the original (‘self-plagiarism’).
  • Citing selectively to enhance own findings or to please editors, reviewers or colleagues.
  • Withholding research results.
  • Allowing funders/sponsors to jeopardise independence in the research process or reporting of results so as to introduce or promulgate bias.
  • Expanding unnecessarily the bibliography of a study.
  • Accusing a researcher of misconduct or other violations in a malicious way.
  • Misrepresenting research achievements.
  • Exaggerating the importance and practical applicability of findings.
  • Delaying or inappropriately hampering the work of other researchers.
  • Misusing seniority to encourage violations of research integrity.
  • Ignoring putative violations of research integrity by others or covering up inappropriate responses to misconduct or other violations by institutions.

What types of misconduct are out of scope for LARI investigation?

The remit of LARI excludes matters pertaining to workplace intimidation, bullying, discrimination, sexual harassment, inadequate leadership and mentoring, misuse of funds, accounting fraud, bribery and corruption. LARI acknowledges the seriousness of these matters; however, other organizations are best-suited for those investigations.  Some general information about Luxembourg laws pertaining to workplace bullying and moral harassment are at this link.

If the CRI does not accept your case for investigation but you feel it is a matter that pertains to research ethics or research integrity, LARI can potentially help you via an ethics consult:

Does the LARI Secretary General help the CRI with investigations?

No, the LARI Secretary General/SG does not help the CRI with their misconduct investigations.  The SG does not guide their investigation, does not perform investigative acts, does not analyze investigation results, does not formulate investigation conclusions, does not formulate investigation recommendations, does not write the CRI Opinion report.  The CRI controls their work pace.  If you have concerns about the process or results of a CRI Investigation, please report this to the LARI Board President.

Does LARI replace the misconduct investigation activities that other organizations such as the Comité National d’Ethique de Recherche Luxembourg (CNER), the Commission nationale pour la protection des données (CNPD), or the Commission Consultative Nationale d’Ethique pour les sciences de la Vie et de la Santé (CNE)?

In general, LARI will not undertake actions that will conflict with the mandate of other organizations.

Who can report cases of suspected scientific misconduct to LARI?

Any person or organization with legal capacity which has knowledge of suspected scientific misconduct occurring in a member organization of LARI or in any other research organisation benefitting from funding of the FNR can be a reporter. All reports must be made in good faith.  The best interest of the public (including human and animal research participants), not financial gain, attention or revenge, must be foundational to the decision to report suspected misconduct.

Are there legal protections for whistleblowers in Luxembourg?

While there is no formal definition of the term “whistleblowing” in Luxembourg law, the Law of February 13 2011 introduced specific provisions to the Labour Code designed to protect public and private sector employees who report alleged corruption or abuse of influence in their workplace.  Article L 271(1) of the Labour Code protects employees who make such reports in good faith, not permitting employment agreement reprisals or terminations due to whistleblowing.  Additionally, Luxembourg law will be changing soon to expand protections for whistleblowers, see this article:

Can reports of suspected misconduct be made anonymously? 

Yes.  To report a case anonymously (including sending evidence), use the private messaging app, SIGNAL.  In the privacy settings of the app set up, select “Allow from Anyone” and “Display Indicators” to activate the sealed sender service.  (Use a pseudonym instead of your real name and link your account to a temporary number/burned number/Google Voice to receive the app registration SMS instead of your routine phone number.)


How can suspected misconduct be reported to LARI?

There are several methods: You can visit the LARI office in person and meet with the Secretary General; you can send an email to; you can phone the Secretary General at +352 621 553 884; you can send LARI postal mail (see our Contact Us page).  Anonymous reporting can be done via the app, SIGNAL, see details above.  For information about how LARI collects and processes data you provide, see our terms [privacy policy] and Rules of ProcedureFor details about how to report, please see this link.

Are the members of the LARI investigative team (the Commission for Research Integrity, CRI) independent or do they work for the member institutions?

All investigative team members are independent; they are obliged to report any real or perceived conflicts of interest to the CRI Chair for analysis and potential recusal.  Investigative team members do not work for any of the member institutions or the organization(s) associated with the misconduct investigation. Further, no orders or directives shall be given to the CRI by the LARI Board, its member institutions, or the organization(s) associated with the misconduct investigation.

How long does a scientific misconduct investigation take?

The CRI will convene whenever needed to undertake their investigative work and aims to complete their work within 4 months.  However, some cases are very complex and involve multiple stakeholders and external experts– such cases could take up to 12 months to complete, or longer depending on the volume of evidence in the case, as well as case logistical matters.  Please view our process flowchart to understand the intake, screening, and investigation of cases.

Can member institutions perform their own misconduct investigations?

No, per our agreement with our member organizations they are not to perform their own internal investigations; rather, the CRI is the formal investigative mechanism.  This helps to prevent conflict of interest and preserve evidence.

Is there a fee for the misconduct investigation?

There is no fee if the case involves a member institution or if the research activity is funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche (FNR).

Can the CRI finding(s) be appealed?

The CRI may take up again a case that is has already completed if substantial new information or evidence has become available since its completion.  If you have concerns about the process or results of a CRI Investigation, please report this to the LARI Board President.

Where can I get support if I have been part of a misconduct investigation?

Misconduct investigations are stressful.  Watch our on-demand webinar, Bouncing Back.  You might be legally entitled to damages if you suffered harm but you would have to seek advice from a lawyer on that matter.  You can get support from a counselor/therapist, executive coach, and clergy.  Also there is a support group available: .  (The group leader is Prof. Angelika Kokkinaki).  PhD Students can reach out to their UL association, DSAiL.  UL teachers can reach out to the Association of Professors of the University of Luxembourg (APULA).

Can LARI provide a workshop, seminar, or training session for our organization on the topic of research ethics or research integrity?

Please contact the LARI Secretary General with details of your request.

Can LARI provide general research ethics consultation on matters not related to misconduct?

Please contact the LARI Secretary General with details of your request.

Can my organization be added as a member of LARI?

Please contact the LARI Secretary General with details of your request.